HTML, or Hypertext Markup Language, is the primary language for structuring web pages. It collaborates with CSS and JavaScript to define content, appearance, and behavior. HTML comprises elements enclosed in angle brackets, encompassing various webpage components like headings, paragraphs, images, and links. The standard structure includes the , , and elements. HTML facilitates hyperlink creation through the tag, enabling seamless navigation between web pages. HTML5, the latest version, introduces new elements and attributes, enhancing web functionality and accessibility. In essence, HTML serves as the foundation for creating structured, interactive web content, essential for web development and design.

Semantic HTML for accessibility
About Lesson

Semantic HTML plays a crucial role in improving web accessibility by providing clear structure and meaning to web documents. Here’s how semantic HTML contributes to accessibility:

1. **Clear Structure:**
– Semantic HTML elements, such as `<header>`, `<nav>`, `<main>`, `<section>`, `<article>`, `<aside>`, and `<footer>`, help organize content into meaningful sections.
– Clear structure makes it easier for screen readers and other assistive technologies to navigate and understand the content.

2. **Descriptive Headings:**
– Semantic headings (`<h1>` to `<h6>`) provide hierarchical structure to content, indicating the importance and relationship of different sections.
– Screen readers use headings to create an outline of the page, allowing users to quickly navigate to relevant sections.

3. **Accessible Forms:**
– Semantic form elements (`<form>`, `<input>`, `<label>`, `<button>`, etc.) provide accessible input controls for users with disabilities.
– Labels associated with form controls using the `for` attribute improve usability and accessibility for screen reader users.

4. **Alternative Text for Images:**
– The `alt` attribute in `<img>` elements allows authors to provide alternative text descriptions for images.
– Screen readers use alt text to convey the content and purpose of images to users who cannot see them, improving accessibility and understanding.

5. **Accessible Links:**
– Semantic `<a>` elements with descriptive anchor text provide clear and meaningful links for users.
– Avoid using non-semantic elements like `<div>` or `<span>` for clickable elements, as they may not be accessible to keyboard and screen reader users.

6. **Accessible Tables:**
– Semantic `<table>`, `<th>`, `<tr>`, and `<td>` elements provide structure to data tables, making them accessible to screen reader users.
– Use appropriate table headers (`<th>`) and captions (`<caption>`) to describe table contents and improve accessibility.

7. **Landmark Roles:**
– ARIA (Accessible Rich Internet Applications) landmark roles, such as `role=”banner”`, `role=”navigation”`, `role=”main”`, `role=”complementary”`, `role=”contentinfo”`, etc., can be applied to semantic HTML elements to provide additional context for screen readers.
– Landmark roles help users navigate complex web pages more efficiently by identifying important regions of the page.

8. **Accessible Multimedia:**
– Semantic multimedia elements like `<audio>` and `<video>` provide accessible alternatives for presenting audio and video content.
– Providing captions, transcripts, and audio descriptions for multimedia content enhances accessibility for users with disabilities.

In summary, using semantic HTML elements and attributes improves accessibility by providing clear structure, descriptive text, and meaningful interactions for all users, including those with disabilities. By following accessibility best practices, web developers can create more inclusive and user-friendly experiences for everyone.

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